This course is two-weeks long.
Environmentally Friendly Automobiles
At the 2017 Montreal Auto show, an impressive array of new electric vehicles (EVs) were on display. Included were Volkswagen’s e-Golf, Honda’s Clarity, Hyundai’s Ioniq, and Nissan’s Leaf. Suddenly there are lots of EVs to choose from; almost 50 new versions will come on the market by 2022. Toyota also introduced its Mirai fuel cell electric vehicle in 2018 in Quebec. In 2017, Volvo announced that all the new models it introduces in 2019 and later will be either hybrids or EVs. Countries such as France, Britain, Norway, China, and India have all announced plans to reduce or ban the sale of gas- and diesel-powered vehicles over the next couple of decades.
China has the largest number of registered EVs (336 000), but that is only 1.3 percent of the country’s total car market. Worldwide in 2016, only 0.1 percent of the cars on the road were electric. But the number will likely rise to 10 percent of new cars sold by 2025, and by that year, EVs might constitute 4.5 percent of total vehicles on the road. At the time, electric car sales in Canada were 0.56 percent of total car sales. The Bourgeois Chevrolet Buick GMC car dealership in Rawdon, Quebec, is the top seller of EVs in Canada.
To date, the sale of EVs has been influenced by several factors: limited range, high purchase price, long charging times, and too few charging stations. But progress is being made in dealing with those shortcomings. For example, Toyota is introducing a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle that will get 1000 km per fill-up. That is double what the best EVs get now, and the fuel cell car can be refueled in just three minutes. Improved efficiencies in batteries have reduced battery prices, and this may make EVs cheaper than gas-powered cars by 2025. Work on further improvements in battery technology is ongoing at Dalhousie University and at Hydro Quebec’s Montreal research lab.
Ontario has invested $200 million to build more charging stations and that increased availability should make consumers more willing to purchase an EV. Quebec and Ontario also pay subsidies to consumers who buy EVs. Ontario gives $13 000 to consumers who purchase a BMW i3 (the list price of the car is $48 000). Quebec also mandates mini- mum levels for sales of EVs. Starting in 2018, 3.5 percent of all auto sales in Quebec must be electric, hybrid, or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. By 2025, the minimum increases to 15.5 percent. It is hoped that these incentives will result in a big increase in the number of EVs that are on the road. However, critics say that subsidizing electric cars is both expensive and ineffective. The Montreal Economic Institute says that the subsidies offered by Ontario and Quebec could cost those provinces a total of about $17 billion by 2030, but they will cut emissions by only 4 percent.
Consider the following statement:
“Giving money to consumers so they will be motivated to purchase an electric car is a bad idea. In a democratic, free-market society, it is much better to let consumers consider the various costs and benefits of each type of car and make their own decisions about which type they will purchase.”
Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Explain your reasoning.
Answer these questions:
Read the following article:
Answer the ethical dilemma at the end of the article.
Answer the following question:
Answer the following question:
Read the following article and think about the hierarchy of authority within organizations and the ambiguous roles they are expected to play in light of resulting ethical dilemmas.
Time Limit: 30 minutes
Just follow others
The business world is replete with examples of people behaving in ways they presumably knew were wrong because someone “higher up” in the organization told them to do so. Examples of such practices include these:
What accounts for such practices? While there are a number of explanations, one common one is that people are often indoctrinated to believe they need to follow the chain of command and not question orders or directives from those above them in that chain. More specifically, people may come to believe that if someone higher up in their organization tells them to do something, they have little choice but to follow orders, and, in doing so, they also absolve themselves of responsibility.
This tendency was powerfully demonstrated in a classic series of studies conducted by noted Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram. Milgram told subjects in an experiment that they were to administer electric shocks to another “subject” in the next room on his commands. They were also informed that each successive command would result in a more powerful shock than the previous one. As the shocks increased in intensity, the other individual began to yell and scream in pain and eventually started to beg the subject to stop. (The other individuals were actually confederates in the study and were only acting like they were getting shocked.) While many subjects became uncomfortable and some asked if the experiment could be halted, upon hearing Milgram order them to continue (because “the experiment cannot be stopped” or “you don’t need to worry, I know what I’m doing”), most did so. Indeed, more than half of the subjects actually administered a shock clearly labelled as dangerous and potentially life‑threatening when ordered to do so.
So, what is the bottom line? Each individual has to make their own decisions when confronted with a situation in which their boss instructs them to do something they know or suspect to be wrong. Too much questioning or unwillingness to carry out orders can result in sanctions or even job loss, but people need to exercise some degree of self-control and be willing to accept personal responsibility for their actions.
Now that you have learned about this issue, answer the following questions: (15 minutes)
Please answer the following questions:
Please answer the following questions:
Please answer the following two questions:
“Many businesses have grown tired of general TQM strategies, having once tried them and found them ineffectual. One frequently cited case involves the 3M Company, which implemented Six Sigma after hiring a former GE executive as its CEO. The company later abandoned the methodology, asserting that it had stymied the innovation for which 3M is known. The attention paid to this case has sparked controversy, however, with detractors suggesting that it reveals the limits and pitfalls of Six Sigma, and supporters arguing that it reflects misunderstandings of the methodology and its proper use. Even when they are successful, TQM strategies can be expensive to implement. According to a 2018 article in Industrial Engineer by Satya S. Chakravorty, Six Sigma certification can cost $5,000 or more per person. Full implementation also involves the use of often-expensive software for statistical analysis.
Some businesses are replacing their general TQM strategies with more specific aims and new ideas. For instance, many companies are applying quality management skills to information technology (IT) departments. IT projects are often clouded by uncertainty and logistics confusing to outsiders, leading to inaccurate estimations of costs and time. Having fixed these problems in manufacturing with quality management, businesses are beginning to expect the same level of efficiency in other areas, and IT leaders may have to adopt new quality standards themselves to keep up with the trend.
Cloud computing is also making its mark on TQM, or vice versa, as cloud computing is becoming a more consumer-oriented service. The vast amount of business server usage is switching over to aiding customers in their cloud activities, from running business services to chatting, messaging, and interacting with each other and the business over social and entertainment applications. As the importance of managing server quality increases, IT leaders will be looking for methods to improve bandwidth management and server space allocation. TQM and lean management tactics may be the answer that they are seeking. These IT versions of quality management may also be too complicated for businesses to handle, leading to an increase in dependence on outside vendors and IT outsourcing for TQM needs.
Another TQM trend is the turn toward hybrid methodologies such as lean Six Sigma, which brings together aspects of the Six Sigma and lean, a methodology that emphasizes the minimization of waste. Aspects of the 5S framework are also often co-adopted with these methods. Such hybridity will likely allow existing TQM methodologies to survive and take on new life in the future.”
“Quality and Total Quality Management.” Encyclopedia of Management, 8th ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2019, pp. 932-936. Gale Virtual Reference Library, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX7617900264/GVRL?u=tplmain&sid=GVRL&xid=d4a09ff0. Accessed 23 July 2019.
For more information on Zuckerberg’s philosophy, see this:
Here is a coder’s take on Zuckerberg’s “proposal.” You don’t have to read it to answer the question. Nevertheless, it gives you a sense of how quality control might work in an industry where things break often, i.e. building software:
You have heard of the recent incidents of ransomware hitting government organizations, hospitals, and large companies. One such attach asked for $600k USD to give the victim’s data back:
Here are a few other news piece not long ago. In case of Garmin, the initial request was $10m:
If you search the news for the word “ransomware,” you will see many organizations are being attacked by it, several times a day:
If you are in charge of the security of your organization’s information technology infrastructures, how would you protect your organization against this relentless threat? Or even your own self, for that matter?